I have written for the Chronicle of Higher Education; Foreign Affairs; Project Syndicate/World Economic Forum; Times Higher Education, Developing Leaders Quarterly, Aeon, New Scientist, and many other publications.
I have published many papers in academic journals including eLife, J Neurosci, J Neurophys, Frontiers Neurosci, Hippocampus, Neuropharm, Beh Brain Res, Cog Brain Res, Trends Cog Sci, J Psychopharm, Eur J Neurosci, Brain Res, J Comp Neurol, etc.
In Praise of Walking tells a big story: taking us on our human walking story in evolutionary deep time, through the development of walking, the mechanics of walking, and how we find our way around in the world. We then discuss walking the city (did you know that the bigger the city, the faster you walk, on average?), through walking and mental health, walking and creativity, and concluding with social walking. I contend that social walking has been underestimated in evolutionary accounts of walking: that our walking evolved in large part for and through social purposes, as well as freeing our hands and freeing our minds. Social walking requires us to be able to synchronise our behaviour with others – requiring a complex neural machinery which can mirror the behaviour of others, and which infer the intent of others from brain systems that evolved originally for other purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how walking in concert (marching, in particular) can be coupled with policy to change our world for the better.
Blurb: When we think of what makes us human, one adaptation that is regularly overlooked is our ability to walk, and to walk upright. It’s this skill that enabled us to walk out of Africa and to spread all over the world – to the far distant glaciers of Alaska, and all the way to the sun-baked deserts of Australia. Walking upright gives us all sorts of advantages. It frees our hands and it also frees our minds.
Neuroscientist Shane O’Mara celebrates the full sweep of human walking, from its origins deep in time, through to how the brain and nervous system performs the mechanical magic of walking, to understanding how it can set our thoughts free, all the way to its most social aspects, when we walk together to achieve something – whether it’s a four-ball in golf, a country ramble, or a march to try and change society.
Walking confers a great many benefits for the body and mind; walking helps protect and repair organs that have been subject to stresses and strains; it is good for the gut, helping the passage of food through the intestines. Regular walking also acts as a brake on the aging of our brains, and can, in an important sense, reverse the aging of our brains. Walking is also associated with improved creativity, improved mood, and the general sharpening of our thinking.
We need to start walking again. We, and our societies, will be the better for it.
Neuroscience – the science of brain and behaviour – has emerged as one of the key and exciting sciences of the 21st century. It is the science that explores the mechanisms that create you as a thinking, feeling and behaving individual, and of us, as humans. In this book, I gather together adaptive and practical insights from the behavioural and brain science to changing business and business practice for the better. Our brains have many biases, heuristics and predilections, and we know more about how to work with these than ever before. Behaviour change is hard. Adopting steps and strategies that are well-founded in the science of brain and behaviour can help individuals and organisations to adapt to the demands of the modern world.
Torture is banned because it is cruel and inhumane. But as Shane O’Mara writes in this account of the human brain under stress, another reason torture should never be condoned is because it does not work the way torturers assume it does.
In countless films and TV shows such as Homeland and 24, torture is portrayed as a harsh necessity. If cruelty can extract secrets that will save lives, so be it. CIA officers and others conducted torture using precisely this justification. But does torture accomplish what its defenders say it does? For ethical reasons, there are no scientific studies of torture. But neuroscientists know a lot about how the brain reacts to fear, extreme temperatures, starvation, thirst, sleep deprivation, and immersion in freezing water, all tools of the torturer’s trade. These stressors create problems for memory, mood, and thinking, and sufferers predictably produce information that is deeply unreliable―and, for intelligence purposes, even counterproductive. As O’Mara guides us through the neuroscience of suffering, he reveals the brain to be much more complex than the brute calculations of torturers have allowed, and he points the way to a humane approach to interrogation, founded in the science of brain and behavior.
Torture may be effective in forcing confessions, as in Stalin’s Russia. But if we want information that we can depend on to save lives, O’Mara writes, our model should be Napoleon: “It has always been recognized that this way of interrogating men, by putting them to torture, produces nothing worthwhile.”
This book has been widely and very positively reviewed in the popular and scholarly press, as well as many blogs- see the press book for details and below for some review extracts.
“In a meticulously researched book that reinforces the legal and ethical arguments against torture, Shane O’Mara focuses on its effects on human physiology… As O’Mara shows, torture techniques are mentally debilitating, affecting memory as well as mood, and thereby compromise the capacity of victims to form and deliver a reliable account of any information that they may be withholding. Not only is torture morally deplorable, therefore, but its outcome is also entirely unpredictable… O’Mara capably translates the experimental evidence into accessible language for the general reader.”—Giovanni Frazzetto, Financial Times
“Offers a passionate and informative riposte to those who feel a ‘war on terror’ justifies barbarism.”—Hayden Murphy, The Guardian
“The book takes readers on an extended tour of the brain and the way it functions under the ‘chronic, severe, and extreme stressor states’ produced by forms of torture such as starvation, thirst, sleep deprivation, and waterboarding. O’Mara looks at the scientific literature examining the effects of these grim methods and determines that information obtained using them is inherently suspect… The last refuge in the defense of torture has always been an appeal to elevate pragmatism and security over ethics and the law in the face of a ‘ticking time bomb.’ O’Mara’s book reveals the hollowness of that argument.”—G. John Ikenberry, Foreign Affairs
“Shane O’Mara’s book is a rebuttal to the torture memos that came out a few years ago that justified ‘enhanced interrogation’ methods used in Guantanamo Bay and Northern Ireland. He takes an empirical approach to torture. From a scientific point of view, even before getting into the morality, it is just ineffective. The FBI said the best technique is to get clever interrogators who are good at forming bonds. The analogy he uses is that if you had a computer that had information you wanted you wouldn’t hit it with a hammer because that would affect its recall. Humans work the same way.”—Neil Delamere, The Irish Examiner
“A powerful, convincing and thought-provoking volume. O’Mara presents us with the overwhelming scientific evidence that torture simply does not work. What is more, it damages memory and is highly likely to produce flawed intelligence. Claims of the utility of torture are no more than ‘cargo cult science.’ …The significance of this book is difficult to overstate. Its conveyance of moral outrage as regards the practice of torture is unqualified and it delivers the evidence to repudiate all utilitarian justifications of the practice. It offers science-based pointers to manners of conducting interrogation that are both more effective and compliant with human rights standards. Furthermore, given the questions surrounding the utility of all statement-related evidence, it supports the long-standing calls for more focus on such other evidentiary sources as forensics and surveillance. It has a great deal to say to contemporary policy-makers and for police and intelligence services, not least at a moment of enhanced attention to counter-terrorism. The book demonstrates the importance of science in the pursuit of human rights… O’Mara deserves some sort of prize for this work.”—Michael O’Flaherty, The Irish Times
“Instead of simply providing utilitarian arguments, [O’Mara] argues that there is no evidence from psychology or neuroscience for many of the specious justifications of torture as an information-gathering tool. Providing an abundance of gruesome detail, O’Mara marshals vast, useful information about the effects of such practices on the brain and the body.”—Lasana T. Harris, Nature
“Does torture actually work? To be sure, it can compel people to confess to crimes and to repudiate their religious and political beliefs. But there is a world of difference between compelling someone to speak and compelling them to tell the truth… Yet the assumption underlying the ticking time bomb defense is that abusive questioning reliably causes people to reveal truthful information that they would otherwise refuse to disclose. Few scholars have scrutinized this assumption—and none with the rigor, depth, and clarity of Shane O’Mara in his excellent book, Why Torture Doesn’t Work: The Neuroscience of Interrogation… Invoking the relevant science, he shows that torture undermines the very neurocognitive mechanisms requisite for recalling veridical information from memory.”—Richard McNally, Science
“If the aim of the torturers is to extract information, they should read O’Mara’s book and adopt gentler methods. CIA and the rest of you, read and note. Neuroscience says your methods don’t work.”—Steven Rose, Times Higher Education
“Takes a scientific look at how the brain operates—or doesn’t—under stress, and points to more humane ways of getting information.”—Claire O’Connell, The Irish Times
“Why Torture Doesn’t Work is a valuable book. O’Mara builds his case like a prosecutor, citing scientific studies and relentlessly poking holes in absurdities and inconsistencies in documents such as the ‘Torture Memos.’ Whether science matters to those who defend torture is another matter, as O’Mara knows: their motivation is often punitive, not practical. But once torture is imposed, the consequences, he says, are that it will be ‘ineffective, pointless, morally appalling, and unpredictable in its outcomes.’”—Carl Elliott, New Scientist
“O’Mara marshals a large amount of scientific literature to make his point.”—Rupert Stone, Newsweek
“Fascinating… Why Torture Doesn’t Work is the empirical case against torture, a reading of scientific research which concludes that torture is a poor method of extracting information, and that the people who argued for it and used it had no idea what they were doing… The message of science, according to O’Mara, is unambiguous: torture makes it harder to obtain useful information, not easier… O’Mara deserves a lot of praise for writing a convincing and moral book.”—Greg Waldmann, Open Letters Monthly
“O’Mara recognizes that there are no clear, consistently successfully approaches to getting reliable information from captives. He makes a compelling case, however, that our current naïve intuitions and macho methods, including conducting interrogations in English to show who is in charge, as well as torture, are counterproductive. And that the training and experience of interrogators currently employed by the CIA is woefully inadequate.”—Glenn C. Altschuler, Psychology Today
“A catalog of the scientific evidence of how torture is at best ineffective, usually counterproductive, and always inhumane. In his exhaustive examination of the psychological literature on human (and animal) stress responses, O’Mara combs through numerous studies demonstrating how those stress responses are related to memory retrieval and communication, which are the stated goals of the U.S. military’s ‘enhanced interrogation techniques.’ The author’s main argument—that we could argue forever about the ethics of torture, but the point is moot if the techniques don’t even work to solicit the information sought—is confirmed over and over as he works through experiments on the effects of sleep deprivation, pain, drowning, heating, cooling, sensory deprivation, and more. The experiments range from the well‐known obedience experiments of Stanley Milgram to lesser‐known studies that measured the cognitive effects of changes in core body temperature. O’Mara leaves no stone unturned as he meticulously details the procedures and outcomes of each experiment… Everything you never wanted to know—but probably should—about interrogation techniques and outcomes.”—Kirkus Reviews
“An authoritative analysis.”—Antoinette Brinkman, Library Journal
“O’Mara has written a sober, convincing argument that torture is practically worthless and morally disgraceful.”—Publishers Weekly
“With accurate and compelling neuroscience, this book will be valuable to individuals outside the neuroscience world—in politics, in the military—who should know the scientific basis of torture as they make and execute policy in this area.”—Howard Eichenbaum, Boston University
“One of the most powerful arguments one can make against a practice is that it is self-defeating, given its own goals. This is a highly unusual book on torture—terrifically interesting.”—Henry Shue, Merton College, University of Oxford